A terminal window on a Linux laptop.

Using the ps Command to Monitor Linux Processes

A terminal window on a Linux laptop.
Fatmawati Achmad Zaenuri/Shutterstock

output from ps -e -o pcpu,args --sort -pcpu | head 10 in a terminal window

ps -e -o pcpu,args | less in a terminal window

We’ve got many more entries in the list, but we see the same four columns since before. The entries with a question mark ? inside the TTY steering column were not started out from a terminal eye-port.

output from ps in a terminal window

output from sudo pkill top in a terminal window

An extra pair of columns happen to be included in the outcome from playstation .

Utilizing the -F (extra full-format) alternative we can get far more columns:

output from sudo kill 898 in a terminal window

sudo killall top in a terminal window

ps in a terminal window

The output from ps -e piped into less in a terminal window

To incorporate more articles to the outcome, use the -f (full-format) alternative.

We’ve protected a range of ways to discover processes, which include name, get, user, and terminal. Toy trucks also protected ways to discover processes by way of a dynamic traits, such as CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT usage and memory.

This will make it easier to observe which procedures are the parents of additional processes.

output of ps -eH --forest piped into less in a terminal window

Now we can identify the processes.

ps is flexible enough to give you precisely the information you need in exactly the format you would like it. In fact, ps has a great many options. The alternatives described below will look after most popular needs. If you need to visit deeper in ps than we’ve considered it in this posting, you’ll find that each of our introduction the actual man site easier to absorb.

If we cross a TTY number for the command lines, we should obtain a report with the processes connected with that TTY.

We get the extra line, and the new column is included in the sorting. The earliest column is normally sorted prior to second steering column, and the second column is normally sorted in ascending buy because we all didn’t set a hyphen on pmem .

The columns we have this time need the display screen to be scrolled sideways to expose them all.

The status with the process could be one of:

The procedure list is definitely piped in to less .

ps -ef | less in a terminal window

RELATED: What is a TTY on Cpanel? (and How to Use the tty Command)

output from ps -eH in a less in a terminal window

ps -e | grep firefox in a terminal window

To incorporate a little more quality, we can check with ps to incorporate some ASCII lines and draw the hierarchy to be a tree. An opportunity to do this certainly is the --forest alternative.

output from ps -eF | less in a terminal window, left hand side of the display

You may pipe the outcome from playstation through grep to list posts that have labels that meet the key phrase. Here all of us looking for articles that match the “firefox” search term:

Again, no information is good information. The process is definitely silently terminated.

Once you have observed the process IDENTIFICATION for the procedure you’re interested in, you should use it while using ps command word to list the details of this process. Use the -p (select simply by process ID) option to accomplish this:

We get a sorted, truncated list.

output from ps -e -o pcpu,args | less in a terminal window

The hyphen ” - ” upon the pcpu sort unbekannte gives a descending sort purchase.

But maybe you have to any job or efficiency issues whatsoever. Perhaps you will absolutely just interested in which functions are running within computer, and you’d like to glance beneath the bonnet. The playstation command complies with both of these demands. It gives you a overview of what is going on inside your laptop “right nowadays. ”

ps -u mary in a terminal window

If pretty much all goes very well, the process can be silently ended.

The 4 columns will be:

ps -e | grep top in a terminal window

Get yourself a snapshot of this processes utilizing your Cpanel computer along with the ps demand. Locate techniques by identity, user, or terminal with as much or as little aspect as you want. We tell you how.

output from ps -e | grep firefox in a terminal window

The output only includes our two requested columns.

With the -o (format) option you can select which columns you want to have included in the output from ps . You specify the columns by name. The (long) list of column names can be seen on the man page in the section entitled “Standard Structure Specifiers. ” In this case, we’re picking to have the PROCESSOR time ( pcpu ) and the demand line with arguments ( args ) included in the end result.

RELATED: The right way to Kill Processes From the Linux Terminal

Output from ps -u mary in a terminal window

Pressing the “Right Arrow” key shifts the display to the left.

The details for this process are listed:

Sometimes tasks can lock-up, or enter a tight loop, or become unresponsive intended for other reasons. Or they may continue running, but gobble up too much CPU time or RAM, or behave in some equally anti-social way. Sometimes tasks need to be killed as a mercy to everyone involved. The first step. Of course , is to discover the process showcased.

This time processes are all connected with TTY pts/1 .

ps -C shutter in a terminal window

ps -eH | less in a terminal window

Therefore , one way or another, we are able to identify processes that are working. By learning their procedure ID, we are able to (if we really need to) get rid of any of the ones processes making use of the kill control. If we desired to kill process 898, we’d use this file format:

output from ps -ef | less in a terminal window

To see the ten most CPU rigorous processes, pipe the output through the head command line:

No response means zero problems, consequently both of the processes have been completely terminated.

Output from ps -e -o pid,pcpu,pmem,args --sort -pcpu,pmem | head 10

ps -t in a terminal window

Anyone with restricted to an individual process IDENTITY. You can give you a list of method IDs, segregated by places.

The articles we now acquire are:

ps -e -o pid,pcpu,pmem,args --sort -pcpu,pmem | head 10 in a terminal window

The details pertaining to the shutter process are listed.

ps -eF | less in a terminal window

The tty command reviews that this is usually pseudo-teletype 0. The processes listed by ps -t are all associated with TTY pts/0 .

RELATED: 37 Essential Linux Instructions You Should Know

Output from ps sorted by cpu in a terminal window

Press the “Q” key to exit coming from top .

playstation displays a summary of the processes started out by the end user who jogged the get.

output from sudo killall top in a termonal window

ps -e | less ina terminal window

Output from ps -e -o pcpu,pmem,args --sort -pcpu,pmem | head 10 in a terminal window

sudo kill 898 in a terminal window

ps -e -o pcpu,args --sort -pcpu| less in a terminal window

output from ps -eF | less in a terminal window, right hand side of the display

Start top rated with this kind of command:

Discussing make it a little more useful through adding in the process IDENTITY column ( pid ) so you observe the process availablility of each process in our position.

To see the procedures that are owned or operated by a particular user, utilize the -u (user list) alternative:

The conquering heart coming from all Linux and Unix-like systems is the nucleus. Amongst it is many tasks is the assign; dispense of program resources just like RAM and CPU period. These must be juggled in real-time to ensure that all operating processes obtain fair share, based on the priority of every task.

For those who have multiple replications of a procedure running, or possibly a process features spawned numerous child procedures (like Google Chrome can do), how can you wipe out them away? That’s quite as easy. We all use the killall command.

ps -e -o pcpu,pmem,args --sort -pcpu,pmem | head 10 in a terminal window

If we put more articles to our screen, we can arrange by even more columns. Discussing add the pmem steering column. This is the percentage of the pc’s memory that is certainly being used by process. Without a hyphen, or having a plus inch + “, the sort order is definitely ascending.

In this instance, the output is known as a single entrance for the procedure we are thinking about. Of course , in the event we’d released several instances of Firefox, there’d be more than one item returned in the list.

The columns are:

Output of ps -p 3403 in a terminal window

ps -t 1 ina terminal window

The columns hold information on the processes:

To see the processes associated with a TTY, use the -t (select by TTY) option. Used without a TTY number, the -t option reports on processes associated with the current terminal window.

You can have the output categorized for you utilizing the --sort choice. Let’s sort out the output by CPU line:

The -C (command) choice lets you visit a process making use of the command identity. That is, the command that launched the method. This is quietly different from the command tier, which might contain path brands and guidelines or choices.

We’ve got two copies of top working:

We can end both of them with this demand:

The pkill command enables you to kill techniques by identity. Make sure you’ve got identified the proper process! This kind of command will terminate the top process.

ps -p 3403 in a terminal window

by adding the -e (select all processes) we can make ps list the processes that have been started by all users, not just the user who is running the ps command. Because this is going to be a long list, we’re piping it into less .

the top command running in a terminal window

The easiest way to use playstation is to flames it up without parameters:

The outcome from playstation is a overview view. That update. To get a great updating viewpoint of the techniques, use the leading command. It possesses a dynamic view of the processes running in your computer. The display is in two parts. There is a dashboard area at the top of the screen made up of lines of text, and a table in the reduce part of the screen made up of columns.

Make sure it is the one if you’re after, and check that it isn’t going to cause you any kind of problems. Especially, it is really worth checking along with the -H (hierarchy) and --forest options to be sure it doesn’t currently have any crucial child operations that you would forgotten regarding.

ps -e -o pcpu,args --sort -pcpu | head 10 in a terminal window

Processes owned by user consideration mary will be displayed.

ps -eH --forest | less in a terminal window

sudo pkill top in a terminal window

Sometimes it can help to figure out an issue or identify a particular process if you possibly could see which processes launched other processes. We make use of the -H (hierarchy) option to do so.

The indentation indicates which processes are parents of which other processes.

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